Cryptocurrency Tax In Australia: Crypto Traders Vs. Investors

Cryptocurrency Tax In Australia: Crypto Investors Vs. Traders
This article outlines how taxation works for crypto investors and crypto traders in Australia.

In the ever-evolving world of cryptocurrencies, navigating the cryptocurrency tax in Australia can be perplexing for beginners. It all starts with distinguishing between crypto investors and traders.

Which category do you fall into? 

Crypto investors are individuals who hold cryptocurrencies as a long-term investment. Any gains are treated as capital gains when they sell or dispose of their crypto holdings. On the other hand, crypto traders are more actively engaged in buying and selling cryptocurrencies. Their crypto assets are considered trading stock, leading to different tax implications.

Why is this classification important?

Because it directly affects the amount of tax you’ll pay on your crypto transactions. To navigate Australia’s crypto tax terrain effectively, you must know which side of the divide you stand on – investor or trader. In the following sections, we’ll delve deeper into the tax implications for each group, providing insights on how to optimise your tax situation.

Crypto Trader Vs. Crypto Investor Definition:

How you’ll be taxed depends on whether you are a crypto investor or a crypto trader. The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) provides clear guidelines to help you classify yourself correctly.

A crypto investor is akin to a long-term wealth builder. They buy, trade, and sell cryptocurrencies to accumulate wealth over an extended period gradually. For tax purposes, their crypto transactions are considered capital gains and losses. 

If held for over 12 months, capital gains may qualify for a 50% CGT (Capital Gains Tax) discount. Importantly, capital losses can offset capital gains from various sources but cannot be used against ordinary income, like salaries.

On the other hand, a crypto trader actively engages in the crypto market to generate short- and long-term income, often operating as a business. They calculate purchases, sales, and closing stock values of their crypto. 

Unlike investors, traders do not benefit from CGT discounts. Instead, crypto sales are treated as ordinary income, while purchases are deductible expenses. Traders can offset net losses against ordinary income if they meet certain requirements.

Determining Trader Status For Tax Purposes:

Australia’s crypto tax has no rigid rules defining individuals as traders or investors. The key lies in assessing your intent and activity. Even if you believe you are a trader, the ATO might have a different perspective. 

The ATO employs over 20 indicators to evaluate your trader status. These indicators are crucial in distinguishing whether you fall into the category of a crypto trader, each playing a significant role in the assessment process.

The top three indicators for determining whether you are a crypto trader include: 

  1. Repetition, volume, and regularity of transactions
  2. Sophistication of crypto trading operation
  3. Presence of trader documentation

In the world of cryptocurrency tax in Australia, the line between investor and trader may seem blurred, but understanding these key indicators can help you navigate the tax landscape more confidently.

Key Indicators For Determining Trader Status:

The ATO uses three leading indicators to determine whether an individual is a cryptocurrency trader or investor. Let’s detail the top three indicators that can help you distinguish between a crypto trader and an investor for tax purposes.

1. Repetition, Volume, And Regularity Of Transactions

This indicator evaluates the frequency and scale of your trading activity. Factors favoring trading include consistent trading, substantial capital investments, and extensive time dedication.

2. Sophistication Of Crypto Trading Operation

A more sophisticated operation implies treating crypto trading as a genuine business. It involves qualifications, registered business entities, adequate equipment, and comprehensive trading setups, differentiating traders from casual investors.

3. Presence Of Trader Documentation

Trader documentation encompasses a business plan, trading strategy, financial statements, and meticulous record-keeping. These documents substantiate your trading activities as a business, distinguishing traders from long-term investors.

Tax Treatment Of Traders Vs. Investors

As noted above, investors and traders serve distinct purposes, which significantly influence their tax obligations. Investors generally acquire crypto assets with the aim of long-term growth, envisioning them as a form of investment. 

On the other hand, traders actively engage in buying and selling crypto as part of their everyday business operations.

This classification holds significant weight in the eyes of Australian tax law, residing under different sections of the Income Tax law. Consequently, it entails different tax implications for investors and traders.

Tax Treatment For Crypto Investors

As a cryptocurrency investor, your crypto transactions are regarded as capital gains or losses. To compute a capital gain when you sell, subtract the sale proceeds in Australian Dollars (AUD) from the initial purchase cost, which includes any associated fees.

Key Tax Implications For Crypto Investors

Eligibility for CGT Discount

Holding cryptocurrency investments for over 12 months makes you eligible for a CGT discount. This can lead to substantial tax savings.

50% CGT Discount

Individuals and trusts benefit from a generous 50% CGT discount, reducing the tax burden on capital gains from crypto.

Loss Offset Flexibility

Capital losses incurred in the crypto market can be offset against gains from crypto and other assets like shares and property. However, it’s important to note that these losses cannot be used to offset ordinary income, such as salary.

Carry Forward Losses

Capital losses can be carried forward indefinitely to future financial years, allowing you to manage your tax obligations over time strategically.

Optimising Capital Gains Tax

Consider utilising an optimal parcel matching method like ‘Lowest Tax First Out’ (LTFO) to maximise tax efficiency.

Tax Treatment for Crypto Traders

As a cryptocurrency trader in Australia, your digital assets are considered trading stock integral to your business. Rather than calculating capital gains, you must diligently record your crypto transactions, including purchases and sales, and determine the closing stock value of your crypto holdings.

Key Tax Implications For Crypto Traders

When it comes to the tax implications for crypto traders in Australia, it’s essential to be aware of the following key points:

No CGT Discount

Unlike investors, crypto traders do not have access to the CGT discount. This means that any profits made from trading cryptocurrencies are subject to taxation at their full value.

Ordinary Income

Sales of cryptocurrencies by traders are categorised as ordinary income. This means that the income generated from trading is subject to the regular income tax rates, just like your salary or wages.

Deductible Expenses

Traders can deduct expenses related to their crypto activities, including the cost of purchasing cryptocurrencies. This deduction can help lower the overall taxable income.

Closing vs. Opening Stock

The difference between the closing and opening stock values is considered taxable income or a deductible expense, depending on the direction of the change.

Understanding these tax implications is crucial for crypto traders in Australia to ensure compliance with tax regulations and make informed financial decisions in their trading activities.

Claiming Tax Deductions For Traders

When claiming tax deductions for traders, it’s essential to understand the distinct approach compared to investors who typically capitalise expenses into the asset cost. 

As a trader, you have the advantage of immediate deductions for expenses directly related to your daily trading operations. These eligible expenses encompass various aspects of your trading endeavour, such as:

  • Brokerage fees.
  • Subscriptions to market reports, magazines, and newsletters.
  • Subscriptions to data feeds, analytics, and trading software
  • Equipment purchases (monitors, PCs, and other hardware).
  • Rent and Internet.
  • Coaching, educational courses, and seminars.


It’s worth noting that crypto investors can claim these same expenses. However, their approach differs significantly. Instead of immediate deductions, investors must capitalise these expenses into the asset’s cost base. The tax benefits are only realised when they sell or dispose of the asset. 

In contrast, crypto traders enjoy the immediate tax advantage of claiming these expenses in the same financial year they incur them. This key difference in the treatment of expenses underscores the benefits of being a trader when maximising your tax deductions and managing your overall tax liability.

Claiming Tax Losses As A Trader

If you’re a crypto trader, you can offset your net trading losses against other income sources if you meet non-commercial loss (a loss you incur from any business activity which is not your primary income source) rules. 

However, be cautious when making substantial loss claims, as it may trigger scrutiny from the ATO, potentially leading to reviews or audits. 

It’s advisable to seek professional tax advice to ensure confidence in your position during the claim.


In Australia, determining if you are a cryptocurrency investor or trader can impact your tax responsibilities. Investors receive advantages like CGT discounts and loss offsets, while traders have different tax rules with immediate expense deductions and income taxation. Understanding these distinctions is vital for compliance and informed financial decisions. 

Manual calculation of either CGT or Income Tax can be difficult. This is where you can use KoinX. It is a crypto tax computing software that categorises and displays all your crypto transactions from different exchanges in a single platform. So, if you want to get your crypto tax report, try KoinX today.